Monday, April 1, 2013


How can we use IT in different Stages/ Levels of Education?
IT for Learning at Home (Before Primary Education)
  • Can be used for giving some ideas about basic things in education with the help of elders.
  • Intelligent toys can be used to get some elementary ideas about the concept of programming.
  • Elders can guide the children to operate touch –sensitive switches on television sets, to press the buttons of a pocket calculator.
IT in Primary Schools
  • Children’s computer awareness is slowly increasing as computers arrive in primary schools.
  • To get keyboard literacy.
  • To practice ‘mouse movements’.
  • To provide practice in problem solving techniques by giving logic games in computers.
  • For learning languages. (Especially in language laboratory).
  • Computer assisted learning can be used to create interest in learning.
  • Various types of discs can be used to create interests.
IT in Secondary Schools
  • Hardware and software training can be started.
  • For the preparation of course materials by using computers (E.g.:-Project and Assignment)
  • For improving literature. (E.g.:-Teachers can ask them to write a critique after seeing a cartoon).
  • For more advanced learning of languages.
  • Simulation through computers can be used for demonstrating experiments.
  • To provide interactive learning through multimedia and internet.
  • Opportunity for Online teaching (E.g.:-through EDUSAT)
  • Can be used for computer assisted learning projects.
  • Can be used for evaluation (Both for self and general evaluation).
IT in Teacher Training
  • Can be used for pre-service training for attaining better quality. (E.g.: to show model lessons).
  • For in-service training (E.g.:-Training on revised curriculum and evaluation system).
  • For orientation and refresher courses.
  • Awareness on computer application for guiding students in proper channels.
  • Can be used for evaluating the performances of trainees.
  • Can be used for training to select programmes for educational purposes.
            # Training for the selection and preparation of educational programmes can be at ‘3’ level.
§  Awareness level(3 or 4 days)
§  Expertisation level(one month)
§  Advanced level(3 month)
IT in Higher Education
  • Can be used for collecting learning materials.
  • For using online computer library centers.
  • Can access to the students of other universities.
  • Can be used for accessing to the experts in various fields.
  • Computer based simulation can be used in technical and engineering fields.
  • Can be used for cataloging in libraries.
  • Computer assisted learning materials can be used.
  • Internet service can be used for getting information from e-books, e-journals, etc.
  • For self evaluation.
IT in Vocational and Continuing Education
  • Computer based simulation can be used for making the training more effective. (Eg;-Simulatin in pilot training).
  • Online teaching opportunities (E.g.:-Through EDUSAT)
  • To interact with the experts in the various fields.
  • For sharing and accessing the ideas with other students.
  • Telecourses can be offered in the field of continuing education.
IT for Informal Learning for Adults
  • For providing awareness about health and medicines. (E.g.:-through multimedia presentation)
  • For providing awareness about sanitation.
  • For effective use of leisure time
  • Can be used for news services.                                                                                                           
  • Can be given awareness on the use of e-mail system.
  • Can be given awareness in e- commerce.
Computers for Storing Information and To Gather Stored Information
  • For keeping records.
  • For keeping cumulative records of students.
  • For keeping attendance and assessment.
  • For producing individual letters to parents.
  • For making students’ lists.
  • For preparing progress report.
Computers for Testing and Monitoring
  • Question banks can be stored and prepared.
  • For constructing tests (For random checking )
  • For the selection of questions (for classifying items).
  • For preparing blue print of question papers.
  • Can be used for printing the test items.
  • Can be used to select questions from question banks according to content, marks, objectives, etc.
  • For ‘adaptive testing’. (i.e., Depth of questions will be increased according to the depth of students).
  • For tabulation.
  • For obtaining statistical parameters such as mean, S.D., etc.
  • Can be used in item analysis of question paper.
Economics of use of IT in Education
  • More economical.
  • Needs only initial investment.
  • Information can be stored.
  • Reproduction is very easy.
  • Less risk.
  • Saves energy and time.
  • More perfection.
  • Printing of documents is very accurate and easy.
  • The problem of unavailability of materials can be solved. (e.g.:- a topic in a foreign book).
I.                   Constructivism and ICT
  • ICT helps to develop constructivism among learners.
  • Learning is project based in constructivism, there comes the importance of ICT.
  • Learners make/construct knowledge through ICT.
  • Learner centered and learner controlled learning.
  • It does not provide linear logic.
  • It provides intrinsic motivation.
  • It provides richness and variety to students’ work.
  • It encourages co-operative learning and collaborative learning.
  • It satisfies/reduces their anxiety.
  • Learner’s autonomy and confidence increases as they rely less on their teacher for knowledge creation.
  • They can gather more real-world data.
  • It provides up-to-date information.
  • In short, ICT helps the teachers and students to follow the constructivist ideas and in the classroom.
II   Higher order Thinking and ICT
  • ICT provides project based training; thus it helps for creativity.
  • It helps to take his own decision as he controls his learning materials.
  • Learner searches, prepares and presents the information and therefore expertise in the subject.
  • It provides not only ‘minds on training’ (learning) but also ‘hands on training’ (practice and usage).
  • It helps to think in different ways.
  • Their role broadens /changes from investigators of other products to designers, authors and publishers as they share their findings to the world.
  • Internet content is less structured and manageable than outlined in a text book. Therefore they will have to question, evaluate and arrange the information they found. It requires higher order thinking.
  • Raw data provided by internet requires a proper arrangement for meaningful presentation. It also requires higher order thinking.
  • Eg:-Pictures from space, Numbers from census.                                                                                 
III. ICT for Equal Opportunities
  • ICT provides greater assistance to traditionally undeserved population.(Physical or developmental disabilities).
  • It can ease the problem of social isolation as they can work with computers without anyone’s help.
  • Light weight computers are also helpful.
  • It increases academic motivation and lessens anxiety as they can progress at their own speed.
  • Distance education using ICT is to achieve education for all.
  • It creates inequality among girls and boys as most of the internet materials are meant for boys.
  • Teacher should be very conscious to bridge such a gap.
IV. ICT for Pedagogy
  • ICT makes teacher centered instruction into a learner-centered instruction.
  • Teachers and learners are co-partners in teaching –learning process.
  • Teachers and learners are co-constructors of knowledge through ICT.
  • It changes the learning process into ‘learning by doing’.
  • Teachers can provide students with self paced, self directed and problem based learning experiences.
  • It provides curriculum guides for teachers.
  • It provides various forms of lesson plans and teaching strategies for teachers.
  • In short, role of the teacher has changed from a disseminator of information to a learning facilitator.
V.  ICT for Assessment
  • It provides rapid feedback.
  • Assessment is linked to the learning.
  • It can assess higher order thinking and learning through simulation as he has to make his own decision at different stage.
VI. ICT in Administration
  • It reduces costs of administration significantly.
  • It can be used for keeping all types of records.
  • Speedy functioning.
  • For more perfection.
  • Can be used in school management and information system.
  • To know accountability of staff in terms of students’ achievements, complaint about teachers through continuous assessment of their work.
  • It saves time and energy.
  • For preparing time tables.
  • To avoid errors in administration.
  • It helps to provide guidelines for educational institutions.
VII . ICT and simulation and Game
  • It enables the learners to experiment with situation which would otherwise be too expensive, too time-consuming.
  • Simulation in pilot training and nuclear explosion.
  • It promotes discovery learning.
  • Games for small children for keyboard literacy and mouse handling.
  • It helps to improve speed and quality of learning performance.
  • It stimulates motivation and curiosity.
  • It enhances learning through visualisation, prediction,etc.
  • It enables students to experience success and a sense of achievement.
Don’ts with ICT (Practical Advice for Using ICT)
            According to National Council for Educational technology, (NCET) there are 7 don’ts.
  • Don’t assign pupils to computers before preparing them for the task they will be doing.
  • Don’t give a task which is irrelevant to school curriculum or home needs, etc.
  • Don’t let the students to do anything while giving introduction to the lesson.
  • Don’t expect the print out of their work at the end of every lesson.
  • Don’t end the lesson without having a discussion on what they have achieved.
  • Don’t rely on the technology to run the lesson.
  • Don’t leave the pupils for working on their task without reminding them of the educational purpose of it.
Role of the Teacher
  • Role of the teacher has changed.
  • Values of teaching are changed.
  • Now, the new role is,
    • To help how to search for information.
    • To help in editing.
    • To help in presentation.
    • To give proper feedback.
    • to help the learner to analyse the learning materials.
    • Giving directions for the effective use of I.T.
Health Issues Related to the Use of IT and Their Remedies
Health Related Issues
  • Headache
  • Back Pain
  • Sight Problem
  • Neck Pain, Etc.
  • Sitting down with good postures.
  • Feet should touch the floor.
  • Use wrist support for the keyboard and mouse.
  • Use a document holder for typing.
  • Monitor should be placed at eye level or directly in front of the person.
  • Use glare-reducing screens.
  • Keep your computer area organized.
  • Keep things that you use frequently within your reach.
  • Take break and shift your position.
  • Phone should be kept in proper place.
  • Use a headset to avoid neck strain which telephoning.
Impact on Behavoiural Pattern
  • Lack of socialization.
  • Lack of social involvement.
  • Moral issues.
  • Computer crazy.
  • May develop selfishness.

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