Thursday, March 28, 2013


Computer graphics
            Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and, more generally, the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware.
Typically, the term computer graphics refers to several different things:
  • The representation and manipulation of image data by a computer
  • The various technologies used to create and manipulate images
  • The sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.
  • Developments in computer graphics have had a profound impact on many types of media and have revolutionized animation, movies and the video game industry.
  • Computer generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: 2D, 3D, and animated graphics.
  • As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still widely used.
Computer graphics may be used in the following areas:
computer graphics software
  • GIMP
  • Corel Draw
  • Photoshop
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) is an image retouching and editing tool and free and open-source software. There are versions tailored for most operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux.
GIMP has tools used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, resizing, cropping, converting between different image formats, and more specialized tasks. Animated images such as GIF and MPEG files can be created using an animation plugin.
The developers and maintainers of GIMP strive to be a high-end free software graphics application for the editing and creation of original images, photos, icons, graphical elements of web pages and art for user interface elements.
Teachers can make use of the Gimp in three main areas: (Educational Use of GIMP)
1) A free and relatively easy to use tool to edit images that you may use when building presentations, handouts, worksheets, tests, web content, or any other digital or print media. Since it runs on all platforms and is free, you can use it at home as well as at school.
2) A free tool that will work on any platform (windows,  Mac OS, Linux) including older machines that you can use to teach students concepts of digital photography, image editing, or as a tool for students to edit images used in their own reports and presentations.
3) A tool for scientific analysis of digital images taken for scientific purposes. It is possible to strip out certain color bands, adjust brightness and contrast, take measurements, and form conclusions based upon image data.
OpenOffice Impress
          OpenOffice Impress, a part of the Apache OpenOffice office suite and developed by Sun Microsystems (headquarters in Santa Clara, California), is an open source presentation program similar to Microsoft PowerPoint.
          Impress is a truly outstanding tool for creating effective multimedia presentations.
          It is able to view, edit and save files in several file formats, including the .ppt format, which is used by Microsoft PowerPoint
Audacity (audio editor)
·         Audacity is a free digital audio editor and recording application, available for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and other operating systems. The free and open nature of Audacity has allowed it to become very popular in education, encouraging its developers to make the user interface easier for students and teachers 
Audacity's features include the following:
·         Importing and exporting of WAV, AIFF, MP3
·         Recording and playing back sounds
·         Editing via Cut, Copy and Paste (with unlimited levels of Undo)
·         Multitrack mixing.
·         A large array of digital effects and plug-ins
·         Precise adjustments to the audio's speed while maintaining pitch (Audacity calls it changing tempo), in order to synchronize it with video or run for a predetermined length of time
·         Changes to the audio's pitch without changing the speed
·         Conversion of cassette tapes or records into digital tracks by automatically splitting the audio source into multiple tracks based on silences in the source material
·         Support for multiple platforms — Audacity works on Windows, Mac OS X, and Unix-like systems
·         The latest stable version supports Windows 98/ME/2000/XP/Vista/7, but Windows 95 and NT are not supported.
Kdenlive (KDE Non-Linear Video Editor)
·         Kdenlive is a powerful multi-track video editor, including most recent video technologies.
·         Software is completely free, as defined by the GNU foundation.
·         Kdenlive is an acronym for KDE Non-Linear Video Editor
·         Can include audio and video effects to video production.
·         Audio effects include normalization, phase and pitch shifting, limiting, volume adjustment, reverb and equalization filters amongst others.
·         Video effects include options for masking, blue-screen, distortions, rotations, colour tools, blurring, obscuring and others. 
·         Animation is the process of creating the impression of a motion picture by continuous and speedy exhibition of two or three dimensional pictures using special animation software.
·         Animation – Two types:
   o        2D Animation
   o        3D Animation
Animation Software
·         2D Animation Software
   o        Tupi
   o        KToon
   o        Synfig Studio
   o        Pencil
·         3D Animation Software
   o        3d Max Studio
   o        Maya
   o        Blender
Storyboards are graphic organizers in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.
Tupi 2D Magic
·         Tupi is a design and authoring tool for digital artists interested in 2D Animation, offering an interface experience focused on 8-100 years old kids.
Tupi - Features
·         Modular and friendly interface
·         Preview animation module
·         Basic tools for vectorial illustration.
·         Time line and Exposure sheet.
·         Animation export option for many video formats (OGV, AVI, MPEG, SWF).
·         e-content (Electronic-content) is Digital content that can be transmitted over a computer network such as the Internet.
·         The e-content could be in the following type:
   o        Short course / unit / module
   o        Full courseware
e-content - Authoring
·         E-content authoring means Development of digital content using special authoring tools.
·         Authoring tool is a software package which developers use to create digital content.
o        Eg: Graphic design software, Video editing software, Animation software, Programming Language etc.
Special features of e-Content Material

  • Technologically Friendly so as to be downloaded and used on any computer either independently or in a LAN situation.
  • Learner Friendly for easy navigation.
  • Learner Centric to be useful in self-instructional mode.
  • Teacher Friendly so as to be used in various teaching-learning methods such as classroom lectures, tutoring to a group, lab session etc.
  • Self-evaluation: It should include formative as well as summative evaluation.
E-content - Significance

  • E-content is valuable to the pupil and also helpful to teachers of all individual instruction systems.
  • The ultimate aim of the E- content is abolish the disparity among the learners through effective education.
  •  It is enhancing the learner knowledge level which leads to creative thinking.
Consortium for Educational Communication (CEC)

  • The Consortium for Educational Communication popularly known as CEC is one of the Inter University Centres set up by the University Grants Commission of India.
  • It has been established with the goal of addressing the needs of Higher Education through the use of powerful medium of Television along with the appropriate use of emerging Information Communication Technology (ICT).
  • Realizing the potential and power of television to act as means of Educational Knowledge dissemination, UGC started the Countrywide Classroom Programmes in the year 1984.
  • For production of such programmes Media Centres were set up at 6 Universities.
  • CEC emerged in 1993 as a nodal agency to coordinate, guide & facilitate such Educational production at the National level.
  • Today 22 Media Centres (Educational Multimedia Research Centres )are working towards achieving this goal under the umbrella of CEC.
Educational Multimedia Research Centres (EMMRC)

  • The UGC set up Media Centres in various universities and institutions in the country with the objectives to produce educational programmes for electronic media.
  • The Centres are engaged in production of Video & Multimedia based programmes.
  • CEC has perhaps the largest repository of Educational Video programmes being produced by its Media Centres, numbering more than 17,000.
  • At present about 1000 Video based programmes and almost same number of e-Contents based on UGC model curriculum are being produced annually by the Media Centres.
  • These programmes are telecast on VYAS Higher Education Channel.
  •  CEC in its media center circuit is having 22 centres across the country known as EMMRC
EMMRC in India

  •  EDUSAT is the first artificial satellite developed for educational needs.
  •  It has been become operational by 2005.
  •  Its weight is 1950kg .It is manufactured by satellite centre of ISRO, Bangalore and launched using GSLV from Sreeharikkotta on 20th September 2005. It has a projected life of 10 years. Estimated expenditure for this project is 90 crores.
  • It can cover the whole geographical area of India.
  •  It has many possibilities like Radio and T.V Transmission, Online Education, Video Conferencing etc.,
  •  It is a powerful communication tool for emulating virtual class room in an effective manner.
  •  It provides in-service training for existing teachers.

  • EDUSAT facilities enabled the students across Kerala to watch lectures delivered live from the       central studio being set up in the state capital.                                                                                                         
  • VICTERS (Virtual Class Room Technology of Edusat for Rural Schools) are implemented in       Malappuram and Palakkad districts. (Inaugurated by A.P.J Abdul Kalam).
  • The virtual class rooms are established in 50 schools in the remote and backward areas of these  districts through ROT (Receive Only Terminal).
  • The facilities are extended to 500 schools in the academic year 2005 – 2006.
  • The satellite lectures and training programmes are extremely useful for teachers and students       alike.
  • The beneficiaries are the children form remote areas.
  • ISRO plans medical education through EDUSAT.
Beneficiaries of Edusat

  •  Main beneficiaries are the students from standard I to standard XII.
  •  More useful to high school students.
  • It provides training for Directorates, Institutions and teachers coming under Public Educational       Department.
  •  It helps to provide awareness programmes by various Government Departments.
  •  It helps to conduct contact classes by state open school.
  •  It provides coaching for entrance examination.
  •  It helps to arrange career counseling

Other Important Points on EDUSAT
  •  EDUSAT is mainly intended to meet the demand for an interactive satellite - based distance       education system for the country.
  • EDUSAT is specially configured for an audio-visual medium, employing a digital interactive class   room and multimedia- multicentric system.
  •  ISRO provides space segment for EDUSAT system.
  •  Kerala is a model to other states in making technologies a part of our education.
  •  With the help of EDUSAT, it is expected that there will be a great leap in the quality education and  training with the help of modern technology to the students and teachers from primary classes to  the college level.
  •  It will be implemented under the leadership ‘IT @ School project’ and with the co-operation of ISRO.
       ViCTERS (Virtual ClassroomTechnology on Edusat for Rural Schools)

  • India's first broadband network on EDUSAT for schools - inaugurated by H.E. A P J Abdul Kalam  the President of India on 28th July, 2005 in Thiruvananthapuram .
  • The scheme which is being executed by IT@School Project of Government of Kerala, is mainly       intended to meet the demand for an Interactive Satellite based Distance Education system for the   country.
  •  It strongly reflects India's commitment to use space technology for national development,       especially for the development of the population in remote and rural locations.
  •  ViCTERS offers interactive virtual classrooms that enable the school students as well as the       teachers to directly communicate with the subject experts and educationists.
  • It also ensures the dissemination of high quality education to the students and teachers from the  original source.
      ViCTERS has two modes of operation –

  •  Interactive mode 
  •  Interactive mode of ViCTERS is used for video conferencing and other such educational                training purposes.
  •  Non interactive mode.
  • The non interactive mode of ViCTERS is the complete educational channel, first of its kind in the country, which was officially inaugurated by Hon. Chief Minister of Kerala  Shri. V.S Achuthananthan on 3rd August 2006.
  • The channel which is telecast for 17 hours a day from 6 AM to 11 PM 

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