Tuesday, March 26, 2013


Educational Technology – Meaning
·         Application of Technology in teaching process.
o    Use of hardware in education
·         Application of Scientific Principles to teaching process.
o    Emphasis Psychological principles of learning.
·         Application of system approach to education and Training.
o    Emphasis the interrelation of Men, Machine, Methods, Media and Materials (5M’s)
Educational Technology – Definition
·         “Educational Technology defined as development, application, and evaluation of systems, techniques, and aids to improve the process of human learning.                   -  NCERT
·         Educational Technology is in the form of detailed application of the psychology of learning to practical teaching problems                                                     -De Ceoco (1971                                      
Technology in education
·         Technology in Education is the application of technology to any process of education.
·         Use of the technological advancement in terms of various equipments, materials, and machines for educational purposes.
·         It involves the increasingly complex range of audiovisual equipment, sophisticated electronic devices like projectors, films, radio, TV, tape recorder, computers etc for individualized and group learning.
Technology of Education
·         Technology of Education is the application of psychology  of learning theories, principles of instruction, curriculum, and learning to the process of education.
·         It enables a teacher to use a variety of media and modes to make his teaching effective.
·         In this the educationalist are involved in designing and evaluation of system of learning.
Approaches to Educational Technology
Hardware Approach (Technology in education)
·         This approach implies the use of mechanical materials and equipments in education.
·         This approach originated from Physical Science and engineering.
·         Using technology in the process of education.
·         This approach is a by-product of the scientific and technological developments of the 20th century
·         In this approach the main feature is the use of audiovisual aids like charts, models, film-strips, slides, audio cassettes, and sophisticated equipments like film projectors, OHP, slide projector, radio, tape recorder, LCD projector, DLP Projector, CD players, DVD Players, TV, computer etc.
·         This help for knowledge explosion.
·         Helps in reaching out to large numbers and hence help in reducing expenses.
·         It leads to an overall efficiency in the educational system.
Software Approach (Technology of Education)
·         This approach implies the use of Psychological principles and learning theories in education.
·         Originated from Behavioral Science.
·         In software approach, the Psychology of Learning is exploited for the production/development and utilization of software techniques and materials in terms of learning materials, teaching-learning strategies, tools of evaluation and other devices to soften and smoothen the task of teaching and learning.
System Approach
·         System : A system is any collection of interrelated parts that together constitute a larger whole.
·         These component parts, or elements of the system are intimately linked with one another, either directly or indirectly, and any change in one or more elements may affect the overall performance of the system, either beneficially or adversely.
·         System Approach involves Tree Stages
o    System Analysis
o    System Design and Implementation
o    System Evaluation
·         System approach is a systematic way of Analysis, designing & implementation and evaluation of a process in terms of its desired objectives.
·         In the case of education, Education also can be analyzed in terms of the three components, namely Input, Process and Output.
·         System Analysis will help the teacher to establish meaningful relationship between Output, Input and Process.
·         This System design should act as the guidelines for the teacher in what to teach, when and what manner.
·         Immediate feedback, diagnosis and remediation at every stage should be the main role to be played by System evaluation.
·         Evaluation has to be done continuously and should involve formative as well as summative.
Education is a system can be represented as follows.

Scope of Educational Technology
·         Spelling out Educational goals and Objectives.
o    Help for the formulation of objectives and goals of education based on individualized and social needs.
·         Curriculum Development.
o    Planning of curricular and co-curricular inputs in order to realize planned goals and objectives.
·         Developing Teaching-Learning materials and Resources.
o    Develops necessary learning materials in the form of programmed learning books, computer learning packages, mass media instruction, individualized self-instructional packages etc.
·         Developing Human resources.
o    ET covers the area of teacher education.
·         Developing Strategies.
o    Teaching strategies, approaches and methods are devised and developed catering to different types of students.
·         Developing Multi-Sensory Aids.
o    Design, development of audio visual aids.
·         Develops Feedback Mechanism.
o    ET develops tool of evaluation to provide feedback.
·         Develops Passive Instruction Services.
o    Educational radio, TV, computers are used for transmitting information. They are passive services since all decisions are in the hands of the providers, i.e., what to be presented, for how long, in what sequence and when.
·         Develops Interactive Instruction Services.
o    ET tries to provide opportunities for the learner to control the pace, mode of presentation etc. eg. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Teleconferencing via Internet etc.
·         Develops Learning Environments.
o    ET develops learning environment that are learner friendly. Eg. Simulation
·         Developing Information Resources.
o    ET bridging the gap between developments in Information Technology and Education. Information Resources : Eg. E-libraries, On line encyclopedia, World Wide Web,
·         Develops Communication Devices.
o    ET has developed communication devices for students who have mental capability to communicate, but are not able to speak.
·         To Reduce the Burden of Teachers.
o    ET supports the teacher in Teaching Learning Process
Communication media
·         Communication media refers to the means of delivering and receiving data or information.
Multimedia - Meaning
·         A judicious mix of various media such as text, audio, video, graphics and animation.
Components of Multimedia
·         Text.
·         Audio.
·         Video
·         Graphics.
·         Animation (Animation refers to the artificial movements of text or other multimedia objects created in virtual environments using specialized software packages. )
Multimedia Materials in Education
·         Computer Simulation Packages
·         Educational interactive CD ROMs
·         Online materials
·         Educational Computer Games
·         CAI materials
·         Programmed Learning Materials
Disadvantages of multimedia
·         Expensive
·         Requires special hardware
·         Not always compatible
Advantages of Multimedia
·         Increases learning effectiveness.
·         Is more appealing over traditional, lecture-based teaching methods.
·         Offers significant potential in improving personal communications, education and teaching efforts.
·         Is easy to use.
·         Frees the teacher from routine tasks.
·         Creates interest in students
Multisensory - Meaning
·         ‘The effective use of various senses for receiving information from various sources is known as multi sensory approach’.
Advantages of Multi Sensory Approach
·         Makes learning more permanent.
·         Supplies a concrete basis for conceptual thinking.
·         Creates interest in students.
·         Offers reality of experience.
·         Gives depth and variety to the learning materials.
·         Helps to develop continuity in thought.

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