Wednesday, March 27, 2013


Communication Technology
·         Communication Technology implies the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to exchange information verbally or nonverbally.
·         It is processing of information in terms of accessing information, decoding information and sending it via a medium
·         Communication Technology is the electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups.
ICT Meaning
·         ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data.
·         "ICT is defined, as a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information."
ICT - Characteristics
·         ICT is the integration of Hardware and Software Technology
·         ICT fosters the dissemination of information and knowledge
·         The ‘digital’ and ‘virtual’ nature of many ICT products and services allows for zero or declining marginal costs.
·         ICT is global – any where, any time
·         ICT is a key enabler in the creation of networks
Advantages of ICT in Education
·         Quick access to information
·         Easy availability of updated data
·          Connecting Geographically dispersed regions
·         Catering to the Individual differences
·         Wider range of communication media
·         Wider learning opportunities for pupils
Limitation of ICT in Education
·         ICT supposedly endangers the child’s social development.
·         ICT is supposedly to endanger the child’s intellectual development.
·         Decreasing of child’s emotional development.
·         Child’s health is endangered.
·         Misuse of ICT - A complete control over the child’s usage of ICT is today practically impossible.
·         Expensive
Educational informatics
·         informatics’ - the study of information processing
·         “Educational Informatics is the study of the application of digital technologies and techniques to the use and communication of information in learning and education”
·         “Educational Informatics is the development, use, and evaluation of digital systems that use pedagogical knowledge to engage in or facilitate resource discovery in order to support learning”
·         Studying the techniques and impact of ‘digital technologies’ within the context of the ‘use and communication of information’ in educational settings
·         Educational informatics represents the intersection of three disciplines: teaching and learning, information science, and information communication technologies (ICTs)
            Inter connected collection of autonomous computers.’
 Communication Media of Computer Network
o  Copper wire
o  Microwaves
o  Fiber optics.
o  Communication satellites
1. Local Area Network (LAN)
·         Local area networks are networks with in a single building or campus or up to a few kilometers in size.
·         Low delay.
·         Very few errors.
·         Higher speed.
·         LANs are restricted in size (Functions within 10 KMs).
·         Transmission time is bounded.
·         Simplifies network management.
2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN).
·         MAN is an extension of LANs.
·         It normally covers the area of a city (are less than 100KMs).
·         Uses a combination of different hardware and transmission media to cover distances efficiently.
3. Wide Area Network (WAN)
·         Networking in a large geographical are, often a country or continent.
·         WAN uses telephone lines or satellite links as a medium.
·         LAN may be connected to WAN.
·         It covers different cities or countries.
·         WANs are not owned by anyone organization but are under collective ownership and management.
·         Complex network design.
·         Error rate is large.
·         Speed is less compared to LAN
·         Internet is a huge collection of computer networks that can be communicated with each other.
·         This word is coined from the word ‘interconnection’ and ‘network’.
·         Through this, each computer user can communicate and share common resources with other users.
Web Sever
·         It is a programme and a computer clubbed into one entity which responds to the requests from web   browsers for internet resources.
·         Eg:- Yahoo, Google.
Web Browser
·         It is a programme that allows a user to display and interact with a ‘hyper text’ documents.
·         Eg:- Internet explorer, Net Scape navigator.
Home Page
·         Home page is the first hypertext document to be shown when a user follows a link to the web server.
Search engines
·         Special tool to search for information on the net.
·         Eg:- AltaVista, Yahoo, Google.
·         A collection of related pages on particular information.
Web Page
·         It is a file of information stored on a web server.
·         WWW is a vast collection of documents stored on internet computers.
·         It was invented by Tim-Burner-Lee.
·         It provides easy access to information.
·         It is a system of media rich documents spread across the internet, linked with each other through related topics.
·         WWW documents contain texts, pictures, sound, video, etc.
·         Collection of private computer networks within an organization.
·         Internal or private network of an organization based on internet technology (such as hypertext and protocols) and accessed over the internet.
·          An intranet is meant for the exclusive use of the organization and its associates (customers, employees, members, suppliers, etc.) and is protected from unauthorized access with security systems such as firewalls.
·         An intranet should be closed off to the general public and require a login for authorized users. 
·         For sharing resources.
·         For high reliability.
·         For saving money.
·         For using as communication medium.
·         For accessing remote information.
·         For person to person communication.
·         For interactive entertainment.
Upload & Download
·         Both upload and download refer to the process of transferring a file
·         Upload means to transfer a file or files from your own computer to another computer.
·         Uploading is the process of copying files from your computer to a remote location.
·         For instance, you might transfer a file from your home PC to the Yahoo! computer that stores your Web Hosting files.
·         Download means to transfer a file from another computer to your own.
·         Downloading is the process of copying files to your computer from a remote location
·         For instance, You might download a file from your Web Hosting account to your home PC
Host, Hosting
·         For a website to be viewed by other people it must be stored on a computer (server) that is connected to the internet.
·         A company that provides this service is known as a host; and the service it provides is hosting.
Web Hosting Companies in India
Hosting Company
Total Domains
Web Resources :
·         Web pages and documents on the Internet that provide useful information.
Bookmarks :
·         A collection of direct links to predefined web pages which is stored in your web browser.
·         Bookmarks can be created and managed by the user themselves. Most browsers come packaged with several existing bookmarks.
Public Utility Websites
  • Website which are useful to public
·         UGC -
·         NCERT -
·         CIET -
·         MHRDE -
·         SSA -
·         NCTE -
·         ‘Hyper Text Mark up Language (HTML) is a standard language used for developing web pages’.
·         History of HTML
·         In 1980, a mark up language, i.e., Standard Generalized Mark up Language or SGML was developed.
·         HTML was evolved from SGML.
·         Presently, HTML is advanced to DHTML and then to XML (Extensible Mark up Language) and now to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
·         HTML codes are known as ‘HTML Tags’.
·         An HTML document has two parts.
                              a) Markup Language       -Tags.
                              b) Web page content       -Text Information.
Structure of an HTML Document.
·         Header or Head Section           
                                                Head Section
·         Body Section
                                                Body Section or Actual Text
Points to be kept in mind while writing HTML documents
·         Each tag is enclosed within a ‘<’ (left bracket) and ‘>’ (right bracket). This differentiates them from text.
·         An opened tag must be closed.
·         Opening tag is denoted by < > .
·         Closing tag is denoted by </ > .
·         Generally the HTML tags are written in upper case.
·         It is not a case sensitive language.
·         When we save HTML file, we should add .html or .htm after the file name.
Merits of HTML
·         HTML is simple but powerful formatting language to use.
·         The simplicity allows anyone to create web pages.
·         HTML documents are device independent (works on any platform)
·         The web pages can be linked together using links.
·         The pages can be updated at anytime.
Limitations of HTML
·         HTML does not have any programming capabilities.
·         KompoZer is a good WYSIWYG editor.
·         It was originally based on the popular Nvu editor and is now based on the Mozilla platform.
·         It is a “what you see is what you get” editor with built-in file management and FTP to get your pages to your web hosting provider.
·         It is easy to use and, best of all, it's free.
KompoZer Features
·         Text editor
·         WYSIWYG editor
·         HTML validator
·         Page preview
·         Save pages as HTML with DTD
·         Color coding
·         FTP or Site manager
·         Search and replace
·         Edit multiple files/tabbed file editing
·         Can edit JavaScript
·         Can edit CSS
·         Additional CSS assistance
·         Upgrade discounts or freeware
·         No limits on free or trial version
·         No subscription fee required

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