Saturday, March 23, 2013


Teaching - Meaning
       Teaching is to cause the child to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and also desired ways of living in the society.
       Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning.
       Teaching is the communication between two or more persons, who influence each other by their ideas and learn something in the process of interaction.
       Teaching is to fill the minds of the learner by information and knowledge of facts for future use.
       Teaching is the process in which learner, teacher and other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre-determined goals.
·         “Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter.”                              H.C.Morrison (1934)
·         "Teaching means many different things, that teaching act varies from person to person and from situation to situation."                                                                                             (Bar, 1961)
·         "The behaviour or activities of persons as they go about doing whatever is required of teachers, particularly those activities which are concerned with the guidance or direction of learning of others."
(Ryan, 1965)
·         "Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement under which students learn. They learn without teaching in their natural environment, but teachers arrange special contingencies which expedite learning and hastening the appearance of behaviour which would otherwise be acquired slowly or making scene of the appearance of behaviour which might otherwise never occur." (B.F. Skinner. 1968)
·         "Teaching as an act of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the ways in which other persons can or will behave."                                                                                              (N.L. Gage, 1963)
Teaching - The noble profession
       Teaching is regarded as the noblest of all professions in the world.
       A good teacher not only shows the right path that the students should follow but also prepares the human resource for the further development of the nation.
       Teaching has the power to create a healthy and peaceful world.
       It has the capacity to inspire lifelong learning and a passion for knowledge, understanding, and innovation.
       The main function of TEACHING is to preserve and protect the old values, customs, beliefs, traditions, etc.
       TEACHING must help in preserving the vital elements of our heritage.
       Teaching transfers knowledge, ideologies, theories, principles and attributes from one generation to another and thus contribute greatly to the general progress of society.
       Teaching provides opportunities to recognize and restructure human experiences and as a result of this, there is development of human civilization and culture.
Difference among Teaching, Training & Instruction
       “Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter.”
       The aim of teaching is to transform a total man and his personality
       In training the various kinds of skill are taught.
       Training has specific goals of improving one's capacity, and performance.
       The trainees are taught to perform skills which they attain during training and practice.
       There is mental and physical activity in training, but more and more of the activity is physical.
       Instruction is at the higher level of training.
       Instructions tell people how to perform a process.
       In instruction there is better level of the use of intellectual powers of the trainee.
       The aim of teaching is to transform a total man and his personality, but the aim of instruction is to develop the intellectual powers in a given direction.
       The word ‘communication’ has been derived from the Latin word communis which means common.
       Another Latin word comminicare which means to share.
       Thus communication means sharing of ideas in common
       Communication refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions, knowledge and information between two or more persons.
Communication –Types
       Verbal Communication
              Oral Communication
              Written Communication
       Non-Verbal Communication
       Intrapersonal Communication
       Interpersonal Communication
Verbal Communication
       Verbal Communication refers to the exchange of message through the use of written and spoken form.
       Usually carried on through language.
       Requires the use of words, numbers and symbols.
Verbal Communication – Two Types
       1. Oral Communication
       Oral communication is the spoken interaction between two or more persons.
       Take place in lectures, discussions, interviews, social gathering, meetings and conference.
       2. Written Communication
       Communication by means of written words or symbols
       Consist of writings, diagrams, pictures, graphs etc.
       Provides a long-lasting record of communication for future.
Non-Verbal Communication
       Non-Verbal Communication is the exchange of messages primarily through non-linguistic means.
       It includes Posture, Gesture, Facial expression, Eye contact, Tactile communication, Personal space, Silence, Appearance, Odour etc.
Non-Verbal Aspects
      The term posture refers to how we hold our bodies as well as overall physical form of an individual.
      Posture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement.
      Gesture is a non-verbal bodily movement intended to express meaning.
      Waving, pointing, and using the fingers to indicate numerical amounts are all very common and easy to understand gestures.
Accept / Encourage
Raise  hand
Seek Attention
Rub face
Rub stomach
Shake hands
       Facial expression
      Our facial expressions may reveal our true feelings about a particular situation
      emotions that can be expressed via facial expressions include:
       Eye contact
      The eyes are frequently referred to as the "windows to the soul"
      When a person looks directly into your eyes when having a conversation, it indicates that they are interested and paying attention.
      People often blink more rapidly when they are feeling distressed or uncomfortable.
       Tactile communication
      Communication through touch is called tactile communication.
      Touch can indicate dependence, affiliation, aggression etc
       Personal space
      This is the physical space one place between himself and others.
      This invisible boundary become apparent only when some one bumps or tries to enter your space.
      Anthropologist Edward T. Hall described four levels of social distance that occur in different situations:
       Intimate distance - 6 to 18 inches
       Personal distance - 1.5 to 4 feet
       Social distance - 4 to 12 feet
        Public distance - 12 to 25 feet
      Silence can be a positive or negative influence in the process of communication.
      Silence can be a judgmental by indicating favour or disfavour – agreement or disagreement.
      By appearance we mean clothing, hairstyle, adornments such as jewellery and cosmetics.
      Appearance of a person speaks him a lot.
      Odour  of a person indicates his racial, cultural and familial aspects
Interpersonal Communication
       Communication between two or more individuals is called Interpersonal communication.
Intrapersonal Communication
       Intrapersonal communication is the communication process within an individual.
Components of Communication
1.    Sender (Source or Encoder)
2.    Message
3.    Medium
4.    4 .Receiver (Destination, Decoder)
5.    Feedback
       1. Sender (Source or Encoder)
      A person or an event which provides correct information and transmits the same correctly and clearly.
      If the source is a person it is called a sender. (Encoding: the process of using symbols or diagrams to express the ideas or feelings.)
       2. Message
      The content of transmission is called the message.
      It may be a set of verbal or non verbal cues like words, figures, gestures, movements, etc.
       3. Medium
      Medium is the means used to convey the message.
       4 .Receiver (Destination, Decoder)
      A person who interprets the message is called receiver. (Decoding: the process by which the receiver deciphers the symbols conveyed by the source.)
       5. Feedback
      It is the reaction of the receiver to the sender’s message.
Communication Cycle
Barriers of Communication
1. Physical Barriers
   Invisibility and poor audibility
   Environmental and physical discomfort
       ill health
2. Language Barriers
   Verbosity (usage of words or phrases that are beyond the scope of your audience's knowledge)
   Unclear graphics and symbols
3. Background Barriers
       Previous learning.
       Cultural disparities.
4. Psychological Barriers
       Unrewarding experiences
       Filling of anxiety
       unfulfilled curiosity
Tips to make classroom communication successful and productive
       Understand the subject matter yourself before trying to communicate it to the students.
       Understand the nature of your students.
       Choose a presentation style fit to the subject matter and the audience.
       Develop sentence that are clear, concise and complete.
       Use correct spelling, pronunciation etc.
       Be aware of all the barriers of communication.
Supporting Aids for Teaching and Communication
What I Hear I Forget, What I See I Remember, What I Do I Understand
Learning Aids
       Any device/Aids which helps self learning/group learning.
Teaching Aids - Meaning
       Teaching aids are the physical tools used to convey information in the classroom.
       Teaching Aids are any device which can be used to make the communication  more effective.
       Teaching Aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.
 Psychology of using Teaching Aids
Research done by COBUN (1968) indicates that generally we LEARN:
    1 % through TASTE
    1.5 % through TOUCH
    3.5 % through SMELL
    11 % through HEARING
    83 % through SIGHT
Research done by COBUN (1968) indicates that generally we Remember:
    10 % of what we READ
    20 % of what we HEAR
    30 % of what we SEE
    50 % of what we HEAR and SEE
    70 % of what we SAY
    90 % of what we SAY and DO
Advantages of Teaching Aids
    Help to learn more and remember for long.
    Motivate the learner.
    Give clarity to learning.
    Give reality and vividness to learning situations.
    Make abstract concrete.
    Reduce verbalism.
    Provide variety in methods of teaching and learning.
    Make learning interesting meaningful and permanent.
    Develop deeper understanding.
    Arouse curiosity and self activity.
    Saving of energy and time.
    Spread of education on a mass scale.
Characteristics of a Good Teaching Aids
    They should be meaningful and purposeful
    They should be accurate in every respect
    They should be simple
    They should be cheap
    As far as possible, they should be improvised.
    They should be large enough to be properly seen by the students for whom they are meant.
    They should be up to date
    They should be easily portable
    They should be according to the mental level of the student.
    They should be motivating the learner.
General Principles of using Teaching Aids
Principle of selection
    They should suit the age –level, grade level and other characteristics of the learners.
    They should have educational value besides being interesting and motivating.
    They should be the true representation of the real things.
    They should help in the realization of desired learning objectives.
Principle of preparation
    As far as possible, locally available materials should be used in the preparation of an aid.
    The teachers should receive some training in the preparation of aids.
    The teachers themselves should prepare some of the aids.
    Students may be associated in the preparation of aids.
Principle of Physical control
    This principle relates to the arrangement of keeping aids safely and also to facilitate their lending to the teachers for use.
Principle of proper presentation
    Teaches should carefully visualize the use of teaching aids before actual presentation.
    Adequate care should be taken to handle an aid in such a way as no damage is done to it.
    The aid should be displayed properly so that all the students are able to see it.
    As far as possible, distraction of all kind should be eliminated so that full attention may be paid to the aid.
Principle of response
    This principle demands that the teachers guide the students to response actively to the audio-visual stimuli so that they derive the maximum benefit in learning.
Principle of Evaluation
    This principle stipulates that there should be continuous evaluation of both the audio-visual material and accompanying techniques in the light of the realization of the desired objectives.
Learning Experience
          AV Aids is meant for providing effective learning experiences.
          Learning experiences can be three levels:
    1.  Direct Experience
          Learning experiences that are obtained through the immediate sensory contact with real objects.
         Eg: Doing an Experiment, Visiting a factory etc.
    2.  Vagarious Experience
          Whenever direct experience is either impossible or undesirable due to hazards we represent the real situation in the form of models or images.
          Experience gained by observing models, Pictures, charts, films etc. are said to be vicarious in nature.
    3. Symbolic Experience
          Symbolic experiences are offered through verbal symbols – oral or written
          The teacher codes the original items in to symbols and passes it on to pupils.
Classification Of Audio Visual Aids

1.  Projected Aids
    A projected aid is one which items to be observed is projected on a screen using electronic or Mechanical device.
    Very effective because movements can be added to sound and hence a realistic experience can be provided.
1.1  Film & Film Projector
    Films in the form of motion pictures.
    Films enrich learning by presenting a series of meaningful experience involving motion.
    Can enlarge or reduce the actual size of the object to suit the need.
2.1  Film strips &  Film strip Projector
    A film strip is piece of non-inflammable safely film, 35 mm wide.
    Length may vary according to requirement and can be up to about one meter.
    One film strip may contain 10 to 50 pictures frames.
    The pictures in film strip may constitute a connected series of drawings, photographs, diagrams or combination of these and illustrated a single sequence.
    The pictures may in color or in black or white.
    Some films strips are accompanied by commentary recorded separately, such film strips is called sound film strip.
3.1  Slides &  Slide Projector
    The pictures or diagrams which are drawn in suitable medium is called slide. (Glass or Transparency)
    Slide can be enlarged by projecting it on a screen with a slide projector.
    Slide projector is an instrument equipped with a powerful light source and a carrier for holding slides of suitable size.
    Some slide projectors uses drums in which many slides can be loaded in proper sequence in advance.
    It is also possible to record the narration in a tape recorder that could be hooked up to the projector in such a way as to give the necessary commentary without the help of the teacher.
4.1  Episcope & Epidia scope
    Episcope is used for the projection of opaque objects.
    Pictures, photographs, drawings or an opaque material within the size of the platform of the episcope can be projected using Episcope.
    Episcope used to enlarge book diagrams and illustrate complex pictures.
    During Epi-projection the class room should be totally darkened in order to get a clear and bright image.
    Epidiascope can project opaque as well as transparent objects.
5.1  OHP
    This is called Over Head Projector because it projects the image behind and over the head of the teacher.
    The transparent visual is placed on a horizontal platform at the top of the light source.
    The teacher can place the transparent plate on the platform and write or draw on it anything that is to be visualized using suitable pen.
6.1  Television
    TV is very exciting and efficient means of mass communication.
    Educational Television programmes aims at education rather than entertainment.
    One teacher or specialist can render teaching session and pass information to million of viewers all over the world.
7.1  LCD Projector
    LCD (Liquid Cristal Display) is the most advanced and sophisticated projected aid.
    In the area of educational technology, we can replace all other projected and non projected aids with only a single LCD projector and computer system.
    Can present a topic by using computer made slide, graphs, pictures, video clips, movies and special effect.
8.1  DLP Projector (Digital Light processing Projector)
    most advanced and sophisticated projected aid.
    Brighter image
    lightest and smallest
2.  Non-Projected Aids
2.1 . Graphic Aids
    Graphic Aids are visual aids such as graphs, diagrams, charts etc.
    They can be conveying the message by a combination of written and pictorial visuals that could be made meaningful by suitable captions.
    The criteria for good graphics are that they should be simple, legible and brief.
2.1.1  Graphs
Normally used to represent the nature of the relation of two dependent variables.
Different types of graphs are
1.    Line graph       2.    Bar graph        3   Pie graph
2.1.2  Diagrams
Used to explain many factors at the same time, by using a variety of symbol and labels
Diagrams can explain facts more vividly than charts
2.1.3  Posters
Posters are bold and attractive representation of an idea or concept and usually given in color.
Poster catches the eye and conveys the desired message.
2.1.4  Maps
A map is an accurate representation of the boundaries and other details of continents, countries etc. on a plane, in the form of a diagram drawn to scale.
A variety of geographical details like location of mountains and rivers, altitude of places, important cities and other places etc. can be represented accurately with reference to a convenient scale and following suitable color scheme.
1.    Different types of maps that are used in classroom:
                i.    Geographical Maps
               ii.    Historical Maps
             iii.    Industrial Maps
             iv.    Political Maps
2.1.5  Cartoons
A cartoon is a metaphorical, humorous and exaggerated caricature of a person or situation in the form of a picture or sketch.
2.1.6  Comics
A comic strip is a form of cartoon depicting a story in sequence.
The events are arranged in the proper order in a attractive pictorial form that is normally appealing to lower age groups.
2.1.7  Flash cards
Flash cards are an aid used in language lesson, especially in the lower class.
The card containing the reading material is exhibited for a few seconds only. Then it is removed and the feedback attempted.
2.1.8  Pictures and Photographs
Pictures and photographs play a significant role in making ideas clear and comprehensive.
2.1.9        charts
A chart may be defined as a combination of graphics and pictorial media designed for the orderly and logical visualizing of relationship between key fact and ideas
Different types of charts are:
                            i.  Display chart
                           ii.  Flow chart
                          iii.  Tabular chart
                          iv.  Tree chart
                           v.  Time chart
2.2 Display Boards
Display categorized into tree main types according to the function to the functions they perform
o    Motivational Display: Display that attracts and appeal pupils and stimulates their curiosity is called motivational displays.
o    Developmental Displays: Displays that ass information and ensure active involvement of pupils in the development of lesson is called developmental displays.
o    Summery Display: Displays that are used for review and consolidation of a lesson are called summary display.
2.2.1          Black Board
Most basic, widely used tool for display
Teaching cannot be successful without proper use of a Black Board.
Black Board planning is a precious skill to be developed by a teacher.
2.2.2          Roll-Up-Board
Roll-Up-Board is that which can be conveniently rolled up.
These are usually made of thick rexin cloth.
The charts and pictures can be drawn on it advance and presents as and when required.
2.2.3          Peg Board
To display flat and three dimensional materials
Use hooks and clips to display materials.
2.2.4          Hook and Loop Board
Intended to suspend heavy 3-D objects as well as flat materials.
Objects can be easily fixed and removed.
2.2.5          Flannel Board
Flannel cloth used to make this board.
2.2.6          Magnetic Board
A sheet of iron that attracts a piece of magnet can be used for magnetic board.
2.2.7          Plastigraph Board
Any smooth polished surface like rigid plastic sheet amt serves as plastigraph board.
2.2.8          Bulletin Board
Used to display bulletin, News items, announcement etc.
2.2.9          Marker Board
Large plastic board suitable for writing or drawing with markers.
This can be used the same way as chalk boards.
It can be sometimes used as a projection screen also.
2.3 Three Dimensional Aids
2.3.1  Models
Models are concrete representations of objects.
Size should be suitable
There are two types of model
                          i.  Working model             ii. Static (still) model

Working model is more effective than static model
2.3.2  Objects
Objects may be defined as the real things from their natural settings.
Eg. Rock, Coin, stamp etc.
2.3.3  Specimen
A specimen may be defined as a typical objects or part of an object which has been removed for conviient observation.
It may be a representative of a class or group of similar objects.
2.3.4  Mock-ups
A mock-up is an operating model usually of a process, designed to be worked with directly by the learner for specific training or analysis.
When direct first hand experience is either impractical or impossible, mock-up can be used.
Mock-ups is an imitation of the real process.                           Eg. Mock Parliament
2.3.5  Diorama
A diorama is a three dimensional scene in depth, incorporating a group of modeled objects and figures in a natural settings.
A diorama scene is set up on a small stage with a group of modeled objects that are kept on the foreground and blended into a painted realistic background.
For representation of depth, object kept at the background are made considerably smaller to create illusion.
2.3.6  Puppets
Different types of puppets are used to make the learning object more realistic.
Most commonly used puppets are hand puppets, glove puppets, finger puppets, rode puppets, string puppets, and shadow puppets etc.
2.4 Audio Aids
2.4.1 Radio
It is powerful medium for mass communication.
Programmes meat for teachers as well as pupils is available.
Help the teacher to supplement classroom instruction.
2.4.2  Tape recorder
A Tape recorder is used to record sound on magnetic tape which can be reproduces many times as possible.
2.4.3  Public Address System
Public address system is very effective when the teacher handling large number of students at the same time.
Public Address System can be used for supplement other Audio Aids.
3.  Activity Aids
3.1  Field Trip and Excursions
Excursions usually involve a tour by a person or a group of person to some selected lace.
An excursion undertaken for gathering objective based learning experience is study tour.
The tour made by a group is often known as Field Trip
Provides direct experience leading to effective understanding.
3.2  Exhibition
In exhibition variety of items exhibits related to teaching and learning.
Exhibitions are effective modes of mass communication and instruction.
Special talents of the pupil get revealed and creativity can be fostered.
Helps to communicate novel ideas to children, their parents and the general public.
3.3  Demonstration
It is a technique which is often used by all teachers.
Ideas, skills, attitudes and process can be demonstrated.
Demonstration should be purposeful, simple, specific and effective.
Demonstration should be planned and rehearsed well in advance.
If demonstration designed by the co-operative activity of pupil and teaches, it will be more effective.
3.4  Dramatization
Dramatization gives a reality and concreteness to learning experience.
Gives opportunity for self expression
Very useful for the subject like social science and languages.
Since emotional content is strong, it help in the development of interest, attitude and  values.
3.5  Museum
Museum is powerful medium for public education.
Museums are repositories with an array of educational materials including rare specimens a variety of objects arranged in a logical order.
3.6  Planetarium
A planetarium consist of essentially of a dome usually mounted on the ceiling of a hall to represents the sky.
A special projector is used to display images of the celestial bodies on the dome.
The viewers who are seated below can see the projected images that can be appear to be realistic.
The projector consists of various individual units for projecting the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars.
Taped narration and sound effects adds to the effectiveness of the presentation.
3.7  Aquarium
Aquarium consists of glass tanks filled with water in which aquatic creatures are kept in naturally.
Pupils can observe the natural behavior of the creatures.
If a school aquarium is constructed and maintained by the pupils they get very valuable learning experience related to various aspects of life science.
3.8  Terrarium
Terrarium is an arrangement for presenting the creatures living on the surface and below the surface of the earth for study purpose.
It is an enclosure, usually a tank. Used for rearing plants or animals under natural conditions.
3.9  Vivarium
It is live corner arranged in school or at home where creatures living in the air are grown and reared.
It provides opportunity for an unlimited amount of spontaneous, undirected observation and enjoyment.
3.10   Programmed Learning
Programmed Learning is a carefully specified, systematically planned, empirically established, skillfully arranged and effectively controlled self instructional technique for providing individualized instruction or learning experience to the learner.
Programmed learning is available in the form of Books, Cards, Machine etc.
3.11   Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
“It is the use of computer to assist in the presentation of instructional material to a student to monitor learning process or to select additional instructional material in accordance with the needs of individual learners”
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.
CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process.
3.12   Teaching Machines
Developed by S.L. Pressy
It’s a piece of device designed to be operated by an individual student for self learning.
The student is presented with a question by some form of display on the machine.
The student is required to respond. Either to write answer or put a button to indicate the correct response
The student will inform the correctness of the answer.
An account is kept of the responses made by the student.  

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